Fire fighting pump is used in water-based fire suppression systems to increase the pressure (measured in psi and bar) of the existing water source. Often this is required for high-rise buildings to overcome hydraulic head losses from elevation differences, and in systems where the terminal pressure at the fire suppression outlets needs to be higher than that of the system water supply, such as with dry pipe sprinklers.
Most fire pumps are centrifugal pumps which develop the increased water pressure primarily through the action of spinning or centrifugal force. Water enters the pump at the suction inlet and passes through the center of the impeller, where it is driven by centrifugal force to the discharge nozzle or ports.
Some fire fighting pumps are designed for transportable use, allowing them to be integrated into fire trucks and fire boats or used as portable pumps. These pumps usually consist of a pump end flanged to a motor which is mounted on a protective frame. They may be powered by either an electric or a diesel engine depending on regulations and requirements for fire-fighting water pumps.
Other fire fighting pumps are designed to be stationary. These pumps typically have a horizontal split case which can be opened for maintenance access. They are highly reliable, come in a wide range of rated flow and pressure capacities, and can be operated by an electric or a diesel driver. They tend to need the most space of all types of fire pumps. portable fire fighting pump